Cyber-bullying is a problem that affects many young people negatively, physically, psychologically and socially. It is a form of bullying that hits the victim hard, but also affects the practitioner negatively. cyber-bullying can take place anonymously and spread widely. It is still possible to prevent its occurrence, and in that effort the school can be an important player. A number of research reviews on cyber-bullying have been published in scientific journals. This article presents a summary of what they show.
There are different definitions of cyber-bullying in science, but a consensus on what it is can still be discerned. Central elements of cyber-bullying are that it is carried out intentionally and repeatedly through the use of online technology. The goal is to threaten, harass, embarrass or exclude someone.
It is unusual for someone to preventive measures counteract cyber-bullying
Although cyber-bullying often overlaps with other bullying, cyber-bullying is perceived as particularly negative. There are several reasons for this, including the fact that it can be practiced 24 hours a day. As cyber-bullying can also be carried out anonymously, it can give everyone the same opportunity to become a bully regardless of their social status and thereby overturn existing social structures.
The fact that offensive content can be copied and spread on the internet also makes it particularly negative to be exposed to. The victim does not always know who or who has spread the material or who has taken part of it. It is rare for someone who sees cyber-bullying to intervene to stop it. If it does happen, it is most common that the person who intervenes is a friend of the person affected and not, for example, an adult, or a teacher at school.
It can be arguing online, harassment via sms and social media, spreading sensitive and privacy-infringing information, impersonating or pretending to be someone else. It can be engaging in unwanted contacting and persecution, so-called stalking and sexting without consent, that is, sharing sexual material. cyber-bullying can also mean not being allowed to participate, being ostracized by, for example, being systematically blocked on social media.
The research in the field is not clear on the question of differences in how hard girls and boys are affected, but it seems that girls are more vulnerable than boys. In the research, it is discussed that it may be because cyber-bullying is not physical bullying, it may suit girls better than boys, whose bullying may be more physical. But that does not mean that boys are spared from cyber-bullying.